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LIEUX DE MÉMOIRE
LAFAYETTE
MEMORY SPACES

I- Lafayette

REGISTRE/REGISTER

Synthesis realised by Gérard CHARPENTIER Ph. D.
President, Grand Commander Ordre Lafayette

OL banniere

http://www.ordrelafayette-usa.org

http://www.ordrelafayette-canada.org

REPRODUCTION STRICTLY PROHIBITED
The information gathered in this working academic document, which is not a commercial document, were selected from websites such as Wikipedia, xenophon group, markerhistory, Google, or other and some data or illustrations may be subject to copyright or not explicitly expressed by the authors. Thanks for taking it into account.

(for any question, contact : GC@gerardcharpentier.com)
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…THIS WORKING DOCUMENT WILL BE MODIFIED AS MORE INFORMATION IS COLLECTED

06-20-2016 : First pulic launching

If you have any information to share; GO to “Submit your pictures and notes”

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What is a memory space ?

« LIEUX DE MÉMOIRE » LAFAYETTE « MEMORY SPACES »
Expérience the “French Touch” of the American Revolution

The “Memory space” is a concept coined by French historian Pierre Nora between 1984 and 1992 related to collective memory, stating that certain places, objects or events can have special significance related to group’s remembrance. At once natural and artificial, simple and ambiguous, concrete and abstract. It may therefore be an important figure, an object, a monument, a statue, a place, a site, a plaque, a museum or archives … as well as a symbol, a currency, a cause, a song, an event or institution …

Le «Lieu de Mémoire» est un concept mis en avant par l’historien français Pierre Nora entre 1984 et 1992 qui explique qu’un «objet» «devient lieu de mémoire quand il échappe à l’oubli, par exemple avec l’apposition de plaques commémoratives, et quand une collectivité le réinvestit de son affect et de ses émotions» «un lieu de mémoire dans tous les sens du mot va de l’objet le plus matériel et concret, éventuellement géographiquement situé, à l’objet le plus abstrait et intellectuellement construit» Cela peut être un personnage important, un monument, un musée ou des archives …  tout autant qu’un symbole, une devise, un événement ou une institution .

index

* TOPIC I: 23 Lafayette outdoor sculptures, statues, busts… in 16 States □ TOPIC II: Around 100 Towns, Counties, Places named for Lafayette in 38 States Synthesis realized by Gérard Charpentier 01-01-2016

* TOPIC I: 23 Lafayette outdoor sculptures, statues, busts… in 16 States
□ TOPIC II: Around 100 Towns, Counties, Places named for Lafayette in 38 States
Synthesis realized by Gérard Charpentier 01-01-2016

(click on the map to enlarge)

YORKTOWN, VA

Lieux de mémoire LAFAYETTE Memory space

IMG_1689

NEW STATUES AND PLAQUES

On October 18th, 2017, when the Lafayette statue joins Washington & de Grasse on the Yorktown waterfront, two new plaques will now be in place at their feet.

Go to ” Virginia” for  the text from these plaques.

visitor center

This Gun was taken by General Lafayette in person of the redoubt #10 at Yorktown in 1781

lafayette gun

It is exposed in the Battle field Visitor center of Yorktown, VA

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Yorktown, VA French Trench DSCN6928

trench trench

« French Trench » Yorktown VA
(Memorial and bronze tablet)

french trenc plaque

Between 1778 and 1783,
44 177 French soldiers and sailors fought aside the “American Insurgents”,
5 040 gave their live for their independence.

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Lafayette Farewell Tour

Lafayette Farewell Tour American States (1824-1825)

The 24 states visited : Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine (ex-Massachusetts / North part), Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia. Plus Washington D.C.

usa-map-1825

DETAILED TIMELINE

1824

July 1824

  • July 13 – Lafayette leaves France.

August 1824

September 1824

October 1824

 

November 1824

December 1824

1825

January 1825

February 1825

March 1825

April 1825

May 1825

June 1825

July 1825

August 1825

  • Late August – Lafayette returns to Mount Vernon/Virginia

September 1825

  • September 6 – Washington, D.C.
  • September 7 – Lafayette leaves Washington and returns to France on the frigate USS Brandywine.

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crédit: Wikipedia.org

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Submit your pictures and notes

JOIN THE RANKS OF OUR VOLUNTEER “REPORTERS” ON THE GROUND

“Nadar élevant la Photographie à la hauteur de l’Art” (Nadar elevating Photography to Art).

Lithograph by Honoré Daumier, appearing in Le Boulevard, May 25, 1863.

Nadar was the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (6 April 1820 – 23 March 1910), a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist (or, more accurately, proponent of manned flight).

Photographic portraits by Nadar are held by many of the great national collections of photographs.

Nadar died aged 89. He was buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.

Source: Wikipedia

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This register is a collaborative website, open to active contributors of all ages, cultures and backgrounds.

This register is a permanent work-in-progress, with articles in various stages of completion. It updates, and improves the quantity and the quality by removing or repairing errors and misinformation.

Anyone with Internet access can send us pictures, articles, texts and references of their own and free of copyright restrictions.

People contribute with their real identity, without pay and copyright and become “ friend” of the organization if they agree

The Ordre Lafayette Order – Réseau America Network is a non-profit, non-political, non-religious organization and everyone can participate in the development of this vast register. It is about the Marquis de La Fayette and his decisive involvement during the Insurrection of the 13 English colonies in America against the British crown (American Revolution 1775-1783).

If you wish to participate in the realization of the “Lafayette Register”, in providing us with information, documents or personal photos, join our group.

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American Revolutionary War – Lafayette involvement

American Revolutionary War – Lafayette involvement 1777-1782

large_marquis_de_lafayette_3-washington-lee-web

Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette

LAFAYETTE INVOLVEMENT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY  WAR
He enlisted as a volunteer without pay alongside the “Insurgents” of the 13 English colonies in America who declared independence unilaterally July 4, 1776

First military campaign : from June 1777 to January 1779
Back in France to plead the cause of the “Insurgents” : from February 1779 to March 1780
Second military campaign :  from April 1780 to December 1781

Many Places in the United States (town, city, village, county, township… Historic, natural sites…)
may refer or are named for General Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette or La Grange
“Home” of Lafayette or the French involvement during the American Revolutionary War

chavaniac

The Château de Chavaniac is a fortified manor house in Chavaniac-Lafayette, France.
It was built in the 14th century and was the birthplace of General Lafayette in 1757
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The French and American flags fly permanently over the château

in honor of the key role Lafayette played in the American revolutions

La Grange
Château de la Grange-Bléneau, commune of Courpalay – France
General Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, lived there from 1802 until his death in 1834 in Paris – France
picous
The grave of Lafayette in the Picpus Cemetery, Paris France

The American flag fly permanently over his grave

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American Revolutionary War – French support

France played a key role in the American Revolution (1765-1783)
and during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).

The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the “Thirteen American Colonies” rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain.

The Unilateral Declaration of Independence July 4th 1776  is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, PA on July 4, 1776, which announced that the “Thirteen American colonies”,  then at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer under British rule. Instead they formed a new nation, the United States of America.

USA_declaration_independenceOriginal document

1775-1776-1777 : France secretly helps the American Insurgents

-In 1768: Baron de Kalb a Bavarian-born French military officer who served in the Loewendal German Regiment of the French Army, traveled to America on a covert mission to determine the level of discontent among colonists. He was sent to America by de Choiseul, (Chief Minister of the French King Louis XVI) on behalf of France. During the trip, he gained a respect for the colonists and their “spirit of independence”.
-In 1775: France began secretly sending supplies to the American Insurgents through different agents like Beaumarchais and French Secret Services.
-In 1776: In beginning of the spring, France secretly sent military aid (predominantly gunpowder) through a company called “Rodrigue Hortalez et Compagnie”.
-In 1777: France had been sent secretly to the American rebels over five million “livres” of aid.

Battles of Saratoga / (September 19 and October 7, 1777)
–First battle: Pyrrhic British victory
–Second battle: Decisive “American” victory and British surrender October 17.
News of Burgoyne’s surrender was instrumental in formally bringing France into the war as an American Insurgents ally, although it had previously given supplies, ammunition, and guns, notably the de Valliere cannon, which played an important role in Saratoga. Many estimates place the percentage of French supplied arms to the Insurgents in the Saratoga campaign up to 90%.

Surrender_of_General_Burgoyne -Saratoga General Daniel Morgan in front of a de Valière 4-Pounder canonSaratoga: Surrender of General Burgoyne / General Daniel Morgan in front of a “de-Valièere-4-Pounder canon”

1778-1782 – France officialy and fully aids the American Insurgents

Prior to the Battles of Saratoga, France didn’t fully aid the colonists. However, after the Battles of Saratoga were conclusively won by the colonists, France realized that the “Americans” had hope of winning the war, and began fully aiding the colonists by sending soldiers, money, donations, loans, military arms, supplies and a Treaty was signed between the two parts.

Treaty of Alliance – February 1778

American Revolutionary War – French support 1778-1782

Treaty of Alliance with France

colon Alliance Yorktown

Monument to the Alliance and Victory Yorktown VA (Today)

The Franco-American alliance or Franco-American Treaty was signed between the Kingdom of France and the “United States” (13 English colonies of America) during the American Revolutionary War. The two parts signed the treaty along with a “Treaty of Amity and Commerce” in Paris on February 6, 1778 (Ending in 1800).

It was a defensive alliance between France and the “United States” and gave “open support from the French Army, Navy and Treasury” to the “United States” in case of attack by British forces indefinitely into the future.

Later Spain (in 1779) and Dutch (1780) became allies of France
-In June 1779,   Spain join France in the war against the Kingdom of Great Britain implementing the Treaty of Aranjuez signed in April between France and Spain, but not with the American Rebels

-In December 20, 1780 The English declared war to Netherlands for their secret trade and negotiations with the American colonies, then in revolt against Kingdom of Great Britain . Dutch join France in the war against the Kingdom of Great Britain.

LouisXVI- Roi de France et de Navare 1774-1791 - by A.F. Callet 1786

Louis XVI, King of France and Navare 1774-1791. By A.F. Callet 1786

*1st “French Expedition” in America under Comte d’Estaing 1778-1779

In the summer of 1778, French Admiral d’Estaing arrived with a fleet of 12 ships of the line, 14 frigates and infantry reinforcements for the war (4000 sailors and troops). The mission was to sail and fight along the American coast and Antilles until the end of the war (d’Estaing returned to France in Oct. 1779).

Charles_Henri_Jean-Baptiste,_Comte_d'Estaing_(1729-94)_(par_Jean-Pierre_Franque)

Comte d’Estaing, Admiral

*2nd “French Expedition” in America under Comte de Rochambeau 1780-1781/1782

On July 11, 1780, under the command of French Comte de Rochambeau arrived the “Expédition Particulière” a fleet and 6,000 French troops and sailors to join the Continental army, under George Washington.

 

Rochambeau

Comte de Rochambeau, Marshal of France

Newport,RI Rochambeau Memorial IMG_0119

Newport, RI Rochambeau 1 IMG_0117 - GC

Newport, RI Rochambeau 2 -IMG_0121

Newport, RI Rochambeau -3- IMG_0125

Rochambeau Statue and Memorial

It is a monument to French nobleman and General Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, who was a key commander of the French forces who assisted the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.

The monument is located on the waterfront in King Park, along the southern edge of Newport Harbor, near Brenton Cove and Fort Adams state park and was erected in 1934. From wikipedia

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French artillerie - Yorktown, VA

French artillery park at Yorktown (Artist’s conception). The flag appears to be that of the French Régiment d’artillerie d’Auxonne.

The “Gribeauval system”, and the “Canon de 12”, was first used for major operations in the American Revolutionary War, in Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau’s French expeditionary corps, from 1780 to late 1782, and especially at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781. The Gribeauval system had been adopted by the French army on 15 October 1765 and supplanted a system established in 1732 by Florent-Jean de Vallière.

The French Navy under de Grasse and the “Corps de troupe des Antilles” under Saint Simon join the Franco-American ground Forces of Washington and Rochambeau in Yorktown,VA

In 1781, the french navy played a decisive role in supporting the Franco-American ground Forces and defeated a British fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake in 1781, thus ensuring that the Franco-American ground forces would win the ongoing Siege of Yorktown, (September 28, 1781 – October 19, 1781) the last major land battle of the Revolutionary War. France continued to fight against the British in the 1782 “Antilles War.”

220px-De_Grasse_painting

Comte de Grasse, Admiral

french_map_yorktown siegeFrench Navy, Battle of yorktown 1781

Yorktown, VA Port DSCN6858

Yorktown, VA Port Plaque DSCN6857The plaque says,

“Two of the most significant Revolutionary War leaders at Yorktown were General George Washington in command of the allied ground forces and Admiral Franois De Grasse in command of the French Fleet controlling the nearby waters. Their roles were closely linked but them met only twice. Both meeting were held on De Grasse’s Flagship, Ville de Paris. The first was on September 20 to complete planning for the attack on Yorktown and the other was on October 21 to explore future operations in the south.”

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Claude-Anne de Rouvot, Marquis de Saint SimonClaude Anne Rouvroy, Marquis de Saint Smon, Major General

Major General Claude-Anne Rouvroy, Marquis de Saint-Simon and his force had been deployed to the West Indies when France entered the war in 1779. He commanded the contingent of three French regiments: Agenais, Gâtinais, and Touraine. These forces were designated to support French and Spain’s operations in the West Indies, as well as special excursions to the main North American Continent. Units of the Régiment d’Agenais and Régiment de Touraine were with with D’Estaing’s unsuccessful assault at Savannah (1779). All three of the regiments (3000 soldiers) were transported in September 1781 to the Chesapeake by the Count de Grasse.

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The Battle of Yorktown, or the Surrender at Yorktown, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
After initial preparations, the Americans and French built their first parallel and began the bombardment. With the British defense weakened, Washington and Rochambeau on October 14, 1781, sent two columns to attack the last major remaining British outer defenses. A French column took redoubt #9 and an American column led by Lafayette took redoubt #10. With these defenses taken, the British situation began to deteriorate rapidly and Cornwallis asked for capitulation terms on the 17th.
With the capture of more than 7,000 British soldiers, negotiations between the United States and Great Britain began, resulting in the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

Surrender_of_Lord_Cornwallis

This painting depicts the forces of British Major General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (1738-1805) (who was not himself present at the surrender…), surrendering to French (left) and American (right) forces after the Siege of Yorktown (September 28 – October 19, 1781) during the American Revolutionary War. By John Trumbull 1820.

 

 

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